A free Google Sheets DCF Model Template to calculate the free cash flows and present values and determine the market value of an investment and its ROI. With an increase in income of the business, one can avail more debt as he can afford it. The cost of debt is compared with income generated by loan amount, so increasing business income can reduce the cost of debt. Now, let’s see a practical example to calculate the cost of debt formula. Now, we can see that the after-tax cost of debt is one minus tax rate into the cost of debt.

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That yield spread can then be added to the risk-free rate to find the cost of debt of the company. This approach is particularly useful for private companies that don’t have a directly observable cost of debt in the market. The after-tax cost of debt is a quantitative measure of how much a business is paying for its debt financing.

## How to Calculate After-Tax Cost of Debt?

As a result, firms look to optimize their weighted average cost of capital (WACC) across debt and equity. The cost of debt is the effective interest rate that a company pays on its debts, such as bonds and loans. The cost of debt can refer to the before-tax cost of debt, which is the company’s cost of debt before taking taxes into account, or the after-tax cost of debt. The key difference in the cost of debt before and after taxes lies in the fact that interest expenses are tax-deductible.

This value can then be used to calculate the after-tax cost of debt, which also considers the tax rate. Additionally, the cost of debt can be used to calculate the Weighted Average Cost of Capital, which considers both equity and debt. 8% is our weighted average interest rate, or pre-tax total cost of debt. To calculate cost of debt before taxes, divide the total interest of all your loans by the total debt of all your loans.

## What Makes the Cost of Debt Increase?

We do this because interest expense is tax deductible, so we need to take into account the decrease in taxable income from interest payments a company makes on their debt. In exchange for investing, shareholders get a percentage of ownership in the company, plus returns. The after-tax cost of debt is the interest paid on the debt minus the income tax savings as the result of deducting the interest expense on the company’s income tax return. The effective interest rate is defined as the blended average interest rate paid by a company on all its debt obligations, denoted in the form of a percentage.

This means that the after-tax cost of debt is lower than the before-tax cost of debt. A cheaper loan means to get a loan at a lower rate of interest which can be done by creating a good credit score by repaying loans on time, offering collaterals, negotiating, etc. Cost of debt is repaid monthly through interest payments, while cost of equity is repaid through returns, such as dividends. As we learned from our pre-tax calculation, our effective interest rate is 8%. If you’re a small business owner, you know that borrowing money is both inevitable and essential. You need working capital to get your business off the ground or grow it to new heights.

## How to Calculate Cost of Debt

In our table, we have listed the two cash inflows and outflows from the perspective of the lender, since we’re calculating the YTM from their viewpoint. Next, we’ll calculate the interest rate using a slightly more complex formula in Excel. Yarilet Perez is an experienced multimedia journalist and fact-checker with a Master of Science in Journalism. She has worked in multiple cities covering breaking news, politics, education, and more. Her expertise is in personal finance and investing, and real estate.

The after-tax cost of debt is the interest paid on debt less any income tax savings due to deductible interest expenses. To calculate the after-tax cost of debt, subtract a company’s effective tax rate from one, and multiply the difference by its cost of debt. The company’s marginal tax rate is not used; rather, the company’s state and federal tax rates are added together to ascertain its effective tax rate. The rationale behind this calculation is based on the tax savings that the company receives from claiming its interest as a business expense.

## Examples of Cost of Debt Formula (With Excel Template)

If the company has more debt or a low credit rating, then its credit spread will be higher. There are a couple of different ways to calculate a company’s cost of debt, depending on the information available. For example, https://cryptolisting.org/blog/why-cost-of-debt-is-calculated-after-tax assume that the average maturity of a company’s debt is 10 years, and the company itself has a rating of BBB. The after-tax cost of debt is more relevant because it is the actual cost of debt to the company.

### Does WACC use pre tax cost of debt?

Type of WACC

A pre-tax WACC means that the post-tax return on equity is grossed up by an applicable tax rate to become a pre-tax return on equity. Therefore both the return on debt and the return on equity are pre-tax values.

Finally, divide total interest expense by total debt to get the cost of debt or effective interest rate. The cost of debt refers to the effective interest rate paid on the company’s total debt. This value is usually an estimate, particularly if calculated using averages.

### Does WACC depend on the tax effect of debt?

Other external factors that can affect WACC include corporate tax rates, economic conditions, and market conditions. Taxes have the most obvious consequence because interest paid on debt is tax deductible. Higher corporate taxes lower WACC, while lower taxes increase WACC.